If your MacBook Pro 13-inch (2009 or 2010 models) stopped booting properly without any reason, this very well could be related to the hard drive cable failure.
I’ve seen lots of MBPs with a problem like that. Just last week I replaced four failed cables.
Here are some of the symptoms of a failed hard drive cable:
1. Laptop boots to a blank white screen.
2. Mac OS X starts loading but gets stuck at the Apple logo and spinning gear.
3. The boot drive (normally named Macintosh HD) is not shown on the screen when you start the laptop with the “Option” key pressed down.
Failed cable replacement procedure:
The only tool you will need is a small Phillips screwdriver. I’m using a Wiha PH 0x50.
Remove 10 screws securing the bottom cover. Remove the cover.
Loosen two screws securing the hard drive bracket.
Lift up and remove the bracket.
Lift up the hard drive and unplug the connector.
Remove four screws securing the cable.
Disconnect the cable from the logic board.
Separate the cable from the cover (it’s glued with sticky tape).
Here’s the part number printed on the cable: 821-0814-A.
Alternatively, you can use Apple part number: 922-9062.
I buy new cables from PBParts.
The new cable comes with a few soft rubber pads (P/N: 605-3260).
After you replace the failed cable and assemble everything back together, glue one rubber pad on the hard drive bracket as it shown on the following picture.
This pad will prevent the bottom cover touching (and damaging) the hard drive cable again.
By the way, it looks like some MacBook Pro 13-inch (Mid 2012) laptops also have a problem with the hard drive cable.